The Understanding the Many Faces of Human Security: Perspectives of Northern Indigenous Peoples addresses the different aspects of the human security challenges threatening Northern indigenous peoples. These peoples, whose unique, nature-based livelihoods maintain their identity, face difficulties linked to a changing natural and social environment. Their traditional worldviews are challenged as the world they have known for generations is literally melting away. The North experiences numerous pressures linked to rapid modernization, industrialization, demographic pressure and cultural changes. These threats are presented from various angles, such as indigenous understanding of security, governance, sustainability, livelihood practices, mining, nature-based resources and land use management, gender and the elderly. The focus groups of the book are the Ainu, Inuit, Nenets, Sámi and the Mongolian indigenous herders.